Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is a term that describes the challenges children (and adults) have when their brains are not interpreting the sensory messages they receive from their body effectively. It can affect or interrupt the messages received from any of their senses. Poor interpretation means they may not generate an appropriate response to the sensory information (or messages) they receive (Bialer & Miller 2011). Additionally, it may mean that they have poor coordination and motor skills. The term Sensory Integration Dysfunction is also used by occupational therapists to describe these difficulties. Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including Asperger’s Syndrome, frequently experience sensory processing issues. On this page we will describe what sensory information is and the different sensory issues that may present for child with sensory processing challenges.
Sensory Processing Disorder – What is sensory information?
Sensory information is any message that we receive from our senses. This includes the five senses that most of us are familiar with, taste, smell, sight, hearing, and touch. It also includes information from our proprioceptive (relating to stimuli connected with the position and movement of the body) and vestibular senses (relating to balance) as well.
|Sense||Examples of Sensory Information (Sensory Input)|
|Taste||Sweet food, sour flavours, savoury food|
|Smell||Perfume, food smells, smoke, flowers|
|Vision||Colours, text, moving objects, shapes, light|
|Hearing||Noises, child crying, vacuum cleaner, alarm clock, music|
|Touch||Holding hand, fabric on skin, hot mug, scratch or bruise, tickling|
|Proprioception||Squeezing an orange, pushing a pram/stroller, pulling, lifting weight|
|Vestibular||Balance, moving, spinning, swings, jumping|
What does SPD look like?
The senses of children with SPD work, so they might have perfect vision and hearing. However, their brain processes the sensory information differently to children who do not have the condition. It is thought that their brain does not integrate, or process, sensory information in the same way as others. This means that their responses to sensory information might not always be what is expected by others. It may also mean they find some environments or activities more challenging. This is because a child (or adult) might find certain sensory information too intense and be overwhelmed. They need might need stronger messages from their senses, and seek out more sensory input. Or they might not even notice the sensory events happening around them.
You can read more about what this might look like on our signs and symptoms of sensory processing disorder page. This pages lists some of the common behaviours seen when someone experiences sensory processing challenges or sensory issues.
One thing that is very important to remember is that for children and adults who report sensory issues is that the experiences are very real for them. They are not right or wrong, correct or incorrect. It just just how their own brain interprets sensory messages. This can be very different to how others interpret the same sensory information. Even if it occurs at the same time and place. When supporting children or adults with sensory processing disorders those around them must remember this point.
This video describes sensory processing from a child’s perspective:
Why is sensory processing important?
The sensory information that our body receives forms the basis for our decision making. If our brain isn’t processing this information accurately, or if it isn’t able to ignore things that aren’t important, it is much harder for us to produce an appropriate response. You can compare it to a computer. The input comes from the mouse, keyboard and maybe smart screen. The operating system processes the input and then something is produced. If the operating system isn’t working properly then we might not be able to print or send an email or upload a blog post. The outcome is not what we had hoped.
In sensory processing, the brain is like the operating system. The brain must pay enough attention to the right message and organising it in a way it can be used. If it’s not sending the sensory messages to the right place, then the response (typically behaviour) may not be appropriate. It could be unsafe, for example, running across a busy road if there is a loud noise. The response might also lead to errors, such as breaking a toy because you accidentally used too much force. When sensory processing issues occur the sensory messages aren’t connecting smoothly which leads to unexpected responses.
Does Sensory Processing Disorder exist as a standalone diagnosis?
Whilst a large number of professionals and therapists refer to SPD, it is not currently formally recognised as a standalone diagnosis. None of the official diagnostic manuals (e.g. DSM-V or ICD-11) currently include SPD. This can be very confusing as many doctors and therapists will use the term SPD. The will also include it as a diagnosis on reports and letters. Currently in the UK and rest of the world the term Sensory Processing Disorder is commonly used. However, it is technically not a standalone diagnosis. There are tireless teams of researchers working towards having Sensory Processing Disorder recognised as a diagnosis in its own right. We are hopeful that there will be sufficient evidence next time the diagnostic manuals are revised to have it included.
Is there a difference between sensory integration disorder and autism?
It is, however, recognised that children with autism have difficulties with sensory processing, especially with regards to sensory modulation. We describe sensory modulation below. The DSM-V autism diagnostic criteria states that there may be “Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interests in sensory aspects of the environment. E.g., apparent indifference to pain/temperature, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, visual fascination with lights or movement.” It is fantastic that this has been recognised within the fifth revision as it is the first time that sensory issues in autism have been formally recognised. There are also researchers looking at sensory processing issues in ADHD, Down’s Syndrome, Fragile X and other disorders.
What are the sections of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD)?
Lucy Miller (2014) has identified three parts to SPD:
SPD – Sensory modulation
The first component of Sensory Processing Disorder is modulation. Sensory modulation is the ability to produce a behaviour and/or response that matches the nature and intensity of the sensory input and environment (Lucy Miller 2014 p.14). This means that the response to the sensory messages is what would be expected; it would match what had occurred. The responses of children and adults with SPD often do not match the sensory message or environment. There can be challenges with some or all senses. Modulation difficulties can include:
- Over-responsivity or sensitivity to sensory input;
- Under-responsivity or not responding to sensory input;
- Craving or seeking out extra sensory input.
We discuss these responses further on our signs and symptoms of sensory issues page.
SPD – Sensory discrimination
The second component of SPD is discrimination. Sensory discrimination is knowing what the sensory input was, where it happened and how intense it was. So, if you stub your toe your brain should be able to figure out (or discriminate) which toe it was and how hard you banged it. When you put your hand into your bag to find your keys, your touch sense can identify (or discriminate) the feeling of your phone and wallet from your keys. When you open a pot of yoghurt your proprioceptive system pulls the lid with enough force to open it but hopefully not spill it everywhere! These are examples of discrimination.
SPD – Sensory-based movement
The third component of SPD is sensory-based movement. In this section, Miller (2041) includes praxis and posture. Praxis is the ability to plan and organise new and novel movements. It is exceptionally important for learning new skills. People are often more familiar with the term dyspraxia which means difficulty with praxis or planning. Posture relates to postural control, balance and stability.
You can read more about how these sensory processing challenges could look for different children on our signs and symptoms of sensory issues page. If you wanted to learn more about dyspraxia you can read our post – ‘Dyspraxia myths explained.’
What’s the difference between Sensory Integration (SI) and SPD?
SPD and SI refer to the same theory and information. To give justice to their history, similarities, and differences, we have written an article called ‘Sensory Integration or Sensory Processing’ and it can be found here.
How can I get help if I think myself or my child has sensory issues?
The best placed professional to help to identify if your child has any challenges with their sensory processing is an occupational therapist who has additional training in sensory integration.
Where can I find more information on SPD?
Online Sensory Processing Disorder training
GriffinOT’s online course – Sensory Processing: What’s the Fuss – explores the sensory systems, sensory responses, and strategies to help in further depth. You can find out more information here on our course page here. We also have a free introductory course which runs through the basics.
Websites with useful information
- The STAR Center website includes a lot of useful information and updates on current research
- The Sensory Integration Global Network (SIGN) also outlines further information and current research on sensory integration
- The Sensory Integration Network (Uk & Ireland) have articles and information
Parent-friendly books on SPD
- For a good introduction to Sensory Processing Disorder: The Everything Parent’s Guide to Sensory Processing Disorder by Terri Mauro (2014)
- Another good introduction to Sensory Processing Disorder: The Out of Sync Child by Carol Kranowitz (2005)
- For a slightly more technical explanation: Sensational Kids by Lucy Miller (2014)
- For information more specific to Sensory Processing & Autism: Building Bridges through Sensory Integration by Yack, Aquilla & Sutton (2015)
Teacher-friendly books on SPD
- The above books would be suitable for teachers. These books also provide extra information
- Sensory Processing Challenges – Effective Clinical Work with Kids and Teens by Lindsey Biel (2014)
- Biel, L. (2014) Sensory Processing Challenges Effective Clinical Work with Kids and Teens.
- Bilar, D. & Miller, L.J. (2011) No Longer A Secret – Unique Common Sense Strategies for Children with Sensory or Motor Challenges.
- Dunn, W. (2008) Living Sensationally – Understanding Your Senses.
- Kranowitz, C. (2005) The Out of Sync Child.
- Miller, L.J. (2014) Sensational Kids Hope and Help for Children with SPD – Revised.
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